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Project Title: 
Aquifer Geometry Analysis and Natural Resource Management in GIS Environment in Upper Barakar Basin, Koderma, Bihar

Thematic Area:
Numerical Groundwater Modeling of unconfined aquifer system

Location:
Located in the northern fringe of Chotanagpur highlands. More specific it is part of Hazaribagh lower plateau which also known as Koderma plateau (located in north of Hazaribagh Upper plateau).
Latitude: 240 15-240 30 
Longitude: 850 00-850 30 
The boundary between the two plateaus is scarp zone. Hazaribagh National Park area is within the limit of the present study area and located on the scarp zone of the two plateaus. The Tiliya Dam of Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC) is lowest extreme of the study area. The study area is part of the Upper catchement of the Barakar river. The study area located between 

Divisions of Upper Barakar Basin:
(table1)
Objective:
Major objective was to improve the hydro-geological understanding of the UBB. It was to understand the complex aquifer system of hard rock area, develop the interactive Ground Water Information System (GWIS) and develop the numerical groundwater model, test the aquifer about it sustainability, generate the different scenario under different stress condition to aquifer system. Following were the broad objective 
* Evaluate geo-hydrology 
* Workout detailed sub-surface aquifer geometry for knowing the aquifer storage & retrieval (ASR) 
* Correlation of aquifer geometry of the UBB with the other area particularly with Siwane Sub-basin located on the Upper Hazaribagh Plateau 
* Determination of Aquifer reserve and its utilization 
* Aquifer simulation to evaluation of aquifer behaviour 
* Designing practical solutions to meet specified goals 
* Optimising designs for economic efficiency and account for environmental effects (optimisation) 
* Predicting impacts of alternative hydrological or development scenarios (to assist decision making) 
* Quantifying the sustainable yield (economically and environmentally sound allocation policies) 
* Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis (to guide data collection and risk-based decision making) 
* Visualisation (to communicate aquifer behaviour) 
* Ground Water recharge sites identification 
 
It was realized that groundwater analysis for its development and management would not be complete if sound database on Natural Resources is not available. Therefore, primary objectives of the project to generate the spatial and non-spatial Natural resource database first. Following were the pointed objective 
* Terrain modeling of the area 
* Drainage analysis 
* Landuse analysis 
* Surface water analysis 
* Integration of all natural resources inputs & planning for sustainable utilisation of natural resources within the watershed 
* Preparation of database of Natural Resources on GRAM (GIS) environment 
 
Abstract:
The project activity has primarily looked into the assessment of the existing natural resources and development of natural resource database in well structured format so that numerous governing factors in the decision making process can be integrated in more interactive way. Effort has been made to include simple and cost effective methodology for the assessment of natural resources. 
 
Digital Basement Terrian Model
To analyse the aquifer geometry and aquifer property, geophysical approach has been adopted. Besides this, routine data like water table, geology, yield etc. has been collected and analyzed to increase the authenticity and usability of geophysical data. Hydro-geophysical data has been utlised for analysis of aquifer property at depth of 11m b.g.l and aquifer geometry / Digital Basement Terrain Model (DBTM) etc. Digital Surface Terrain Model (DSTM) has also been generated 
 
Ground Water Information System (GWIS)
Ground Water Information System for Upper Barakar Basin has been prepared The single GWIS data file of Upper Barakar Basin, Hazaribagh, Bihar has been internally structured as Master Data, Chemistry, Chemistry, HGWL, Hydrographs, and Welllog. From database in GWW application like display of Master Data, Chemistry, Hydrographs, Mapping, Well Log, Cross Section and Fence vel 
 
Groundwater Modeling 
MODFLOW, a modular three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water model of the U. S. Geological Survey along with pre and post processor has been used to describe and predict the behavior of groundwater systems in watershed domain. Processing MODFLOW (PMWIN), Visual MODFLOW and Groundwater Modeling System (GMS) commercial package have used for modeling two watersheds. Three-dimensional ground-water flow has been simulated for the two watersheds. Flow associated with external stresses, such as wells, areal recharge, evapo-transpiration, drains, and streams, has been also simulated. 
 
Highlights/Findings:
* Numbers of sub-surface basins have been identified through DBTM. It may be utilised for locating deep bore wells and to understand Aquifer Storage and Retrieval (ASR) area of the watersheds. 
* Drainage controlled lineaments have shown good correlation with the hydro-geophysical response and DBTM derived structural fractures. 
* Hydro-geomorphologic classification used earlier has been further improved by incorporating local relative geomorphology. 
* Out of total 180 vertical electrical sounding sites within the UBB more than 40 sites have been found suitable for the deep bore wells. 
* Large-scale dugwell development may be taken up by the user's agencies in the middle portion of Kewta, mid northern portion of Barakar-I and central portion of Anjanwa watershed. Information will be supplied to the DRDA. 
* Calibrated Numerical groundwater 3D model has indicated that a place where basement depth is high, there is less chance of failure borewells. Therefore well success in hard rock area depends on the thickness of the aquifer material. 
* The largest water body in the watershed "Tiliya dam" in the extreme down reaches of UBB is not contributing much to the aquifer system of the Upper reaches. Groundwater Flow pattern is guided by the local channel depression. 
* The volumetric calculation of total available utilizable groundwater within aquifer has been made. Aquifer can be pumped with slow rate, most appropriately at the rate of 100 m3/day. In some area, pumping at the rate of 200 m3/day is possible. 
* The modeling results indicated that the volume of groundwater seepage in the drainage channel is decreasing with time due to continuous pumping. The seepage loss of groundwater can be optimized through the modeling simulation. 
* Inspection of draw down of the individual pumping wells indicated that radius of influence of wells are very limited and rarely interfering the other wells. 
 
Data Used:
* Hydrological data 
* Land-use/ cover data 
* Hydro-geophysical data 
* Satellite data 
* Socio-economic data 
 
Output:
* Drainage and water body map of Siwane Sub-basin, Hazaribagh, Jharkhand (Figure1
* Drainage map of Upper Barakar Basin (Figure2
* IRS-1C Satellite data showing rabi crops in Margajo watershed of Upper Barakar Basin (Figure3
* Digital Basement Terrain Model of Margajo Watershed, Upper Barakar Basin (Figure4
* Land Use/ Land Cover map prepared on the basis of remote sensing data (Figure5
* Groundwater Information System of Upper Barakar Basin (Figure6
* Showing model feature developed in Visual Modflow modeling Environment (Figure7
* Showing head other model feature along the XZ cut way in Visual Modflow Modeling Environment (Figure8
* Showing head and other model feature along the XZ cut way in Visual Modflow Modeling Environment (Figure9
* 3D-Visualisation of Head on the 1st day of modeling simulation (Figure10
* Simulated result at different time (Figure11
* Landuse statistics based on remote sensing data: MARGAJO WATERSHED (Table1
* Static and dynamic Groundwater Reserves: MARGAJO WATERSHED (Table2
 
Date of project completion:
31 December, 2002 
 
Total Cost of Project:
Rs. 10,80,000.00 
 
Project Investigator:
Dr. Ashok Kumar, 
Bihar Remote Sensing Application Centre, 
Dept. of Science & Technology, Govt. of Bihar 
IGSC- Planetarium, Adalatganj, Patna - 800 001.
Phone: 0612-2235264 (o), 0612-2689001 (R),  

Fax: 0612 -2230432,  

E-mail: ashok_bcst@yahoo.com / birsac@sancharnet.in

Web: http://www.geocities.com/ashok_bcst