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Targets For X Plan (2002-2007) 

The NRDMS division proposes the following activities in the 10th plan period. 
(1) Establishment of NRDMS District Centres
(2) Karnataka – A laboratory for NRDMS Methodology
(3) Promote R&D initiatives for
     (a) Improvements in database management
     (b) Development & adoption of new techniques for data generation & analysis
     (c) Promote NRDMS methodology for 
          (i) Land & water systems analysis
          (ii) Bio-Geo database for Ecological modeling for Himalaya
          (iii) Landslide studies
          (iv) Coastal Zone Management & Conservation 

(1) District NRDMS Centres 
District NRDMS centres are the operational hubs of the programme. Thirtythree such centres have been set up in 10 states of the country, with the approval of the respective state governments on fund sharing basis. These centres provide the necessary technical support in the development & maintenance of the integrated district database for making it available to the district administration for their planning exercise and in testing the decision support modules developed under NRDMS at the operational level.

In the 9th plan period 8 district centres were established in the states of – Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Haryana. The states of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and West Bengal have made requests for expansion. Dialogues are on with the states of Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Nagaland, Uttaranchal and Punjab for establishment of NRDMS centres in identified district/s. In the 10th plan the division is proposing to establish at least one district NRDMS center in all the states of India to expose the respective state government to the methodology and train the administration in the adoption of the data-based approach for district level planning. In order to fulfill this commitment, the budgetary requirement for 25 district centres works out to DST contribution ofRs.10.00 Crores & State share of 2.50 Crores. The proposed package for setting up of one district center for a period of 5 years is as below:

(a) Budget for Hardware & Software                          Rs. 5.00 lakhs 
(b) Data collection / procurement                              Rs. 5.00 lakhs 
(c) Preparation of spatial & non-spatial database        Rs. 15.00 lakhs 
(d) Manpower (Technical for 5 years)                        Rs.10.00 lakhs 
(e) Operational cost                                                 Rs. 3.00 lakhs 
(f) Training of End users                                           Rs. 2.00 lakhs 
(g) State Government’s Share                                  Rs.10.00 lakhs 
                                  Total                                   Rs.50.00 lakhs


(2) Karnataka – A laboratory for NRDMS Methodology 
To test the efficacy of the NRDMS methodology as a planning tool on a statewide scale it was envisaged that one State should be covered in entirety. As Karnataka was one of the pioneering states of India in implementing the 73rd & 74th Constitutional Amendment acts and showed keen interest in the adoption of GIS technology for local level decision making, this state was chosen as “laboratory” for development of Stae level demonstration of NRDMS methodologies. Accordingly, in the year1992 the programme was initiated with the active support of the Government of Karnataka, with the Karnataka State Council for Science and Technology as the implementing agency. The programme is being co-ordinated through the State Centre and the database support is given to the user departments at the districts through the district NRDMS centers that are getting established in a phased manner to cover the entire state. 
In the first phase of the programme – between 1992 till 1997, a state center and twelve district centers were established on 75:25 cost sharing basis between DST and Govt. of Karnataka at an approved cost of Rs. 192.53 Lakhs. At the end of the first phase, the project was reviewed by Steering Committee and the Expert Committee of the NRDMS and based on their recommendations the second phase of the project was proposed. On review of the progress and the utility of the programme, the Standing Finance Committee in February 2001approved the continuation of the programme up to the year 2002 and recommended a total cost of Rs. 118.98 Lakhs (1.19 Crores approx.) for covering the entire state.

During the Tenth Plan, emphasis will be on providing information back up to the Zilla Panchayats in the two selected sectors of water management and energy budgeting. In order to achieve these goals, required initiatives will be taken to upgrade the resource databases at the centers and customize the techniques. For this purpose, an approximate cost of 3.00 Crores is proposed to be made available to the programme in addition to the approved 1.19 Crore mentioned earlier. 

(3) R & D Initiatives: 
Continuous Research & Development initiatives are required to upgrade and enhance the NRDMS technology/methodology with the changing concepts in the Geographic Information Science, need based improvements in data and information generation / maintenance and above all to provide sustained technological inputs to the user community for transparent and better informed decision making. The key areas that would receive prime attention during the Tenth Plan are as follows: 
(i) Software Development: 
(a) GIS related
Upgradation of GRAM++ package, customisation of GRAM++ for selected applications, upgradation of training kits for self training of end-users on GRAM++ and GIS techniques, Internet GIS, Interoperable GIS will receive prime attention during the Xth Plan. 

(b) Spatial Decision Support Systems
Development of SDSS in sectors like education, health, agriculture Validation and refinement of SDSS developed in the sectors of Water management, energy and infrastructure location during the IX Plan Customization of SDSS to suit different geo-environmental, /agro-ecological settings 
(ii) Land and Water system analysis 
(a) Integrated water management 
(i) Hydrological evaluation of successful watershed projects in different parts of the country.
(ii) To develop methodologies for inter linking small watershed concepts with river basin management (i.e micro-macro interaction)
(iii) Programme on bio-geo resource planning of the watersheds taken under the current phase of the programme should be taken up.
(iv) Taking up some forests watersheds for comperative study on hydrological regimes.
(v) Initiating studies on Urban Watershed Hydrology .
(vi)Programme on Hydrological monitoring and water management of important wet lands and their watersheds.
(vii)Generation of high resolution data on topography, soil, drainage and land use needed for watershed delineation and management.
(viii)On the basis of the findings of this phase of programme a national programme on physical process based landuse planning will be developed.
(b) Hydrology of Small Watersheds 
- The watersheds taken during this plan period should be developed as “benchmark watersheds” for long-term studies by taking up more detailed monitoring of land and water parameters not covered during the IX th plan.
- Outputs of the studies during IX th plan in the form of Integrated database for water sector at small watershed level, Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS) for watershed managements, scientific indices for impact assessment of watershed management programmes and user manual for using the database and SDSSs will be disseminated to the different level of users and decision makers through training and capacity building activities.
- Another five projects will be taken up in uncovered suitable representative agro-climatic regions based on the lessons learnt in the current phase of the programme. Preference will be given to cover the drought prone states.
- Evolving criteria for prioritization of the treatment programmes in small watersheds
- Development of web-site for the “Small Watershed Hydrology”. It should also contain work done by other institutions involved in studies on small watershed
(c) Groundwater Studies 
Studies related to ground water modelling would be taken up on pilot scale in   selected watersheds in Bihar, West Bengal & Karnataka, where relevant studies are already in vogue. The study would essentially aim at - (i) developing a conceptual understanding of the quantitative groundwater flow dynamics through instrumentation and numerical analysis (ii) study the response of the system to different stresses as well as groundwater development strategy through modelling focusing in hard rock terrain and finally, (iii) demonstrate the utility of hydrological models in managing the groundwater resources. Use of isotopes in hydrological investigations is evolving as a modern tool in providing information on the flow path, transportation & recharge rate, decipher aquifer characteristics, dating of groundwater, surface-groundwater relationship, source of pollutants in groundwater. Pilot studies in this area have been attempted by few premier national agencies like TIFR, PRL, NGRI, CAZRI, NIH and CWRDM. It is proposed to consolidate and disseminate this technique through involvement of the different agencies and academic institutions on a collaborative mode. Studies using ‘Electrical Tomography’ technique to identify recharge reservoirs like abandoned channels and dry fractures should be initiated to augument Artificial recharge methods. 

(iii) Landslide Studies 
Landslide Hazard Zonation & Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) for regional, district and site specific micro-zonation would be done through detailed mapping on 1:50,000 – 1:25,000, 1:15,000 – 1:10,000 & 1:5,000 – 1:2,000 scale respectively. 
Monitoring of critical landslides in terms of the following aspects:

- Geotechnical Investigations.
- Field investigations – geology, geomorphology and hydrogeology of the selected sites.
- Field/laboratory testing for evaluation of design parameters.
- Surface observations and instrumentation – for data collection as input to stability analysis and for long term monitoring and warning.
- Stability analysis procedures.
- Design of suitable control measures for their efficacy. 
- Instrumentation Planning & Design – including total station in conjunction with Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) and Global Positioning System (GPS).
- Development of models & Kinematics studies.
Developing Early warning systems. 
 
(iv) Himalayan Ecology & Bio-Geo Database 
During 10th Plan, 24 representative watersheds covering HP, Kumaun Region, Garhwal Region and North Eastern Region in the Altitudinal transects covering lower, middle and higher Himalayan ranges would be selected for undertaking detailed investigations for preparation of sustainable ecological plan using GIS and Remote Sensing technologies to implement the concept of micro level planning. 

(v) SAR Interferometry 
During the X Plan period, it is proposed to support specific research projects on application of SAR technology that has relevance to developmental planning. Generation of higher resolution elevation model for use in the watershed planning is one of the priorities. SAR technology would also be used to assess the accumulation and ablation of glaciers and estimate the quantum of melt water discharge into the watersheds. 
 
(vi) Technology Transfer and Human Resource Development
Training and transfer of technology amongst the end user community will find an important place in the coming years. It is proposed to hold atleast two trianing programmes per year on the ‘Concepts and Applications of GIS in Local Area Developmental Planning’ involving Survey Training Institute and CSRE, IIT – Bombay. In addition GRAM ++ training would be organised for the user community. Further, focussed training programmes on applications of new techniques in small watershed hydrology, groundwater modelling, ecological modelling, landslide monitoring etc. would be supported for wider appreciation of the technique and application in the ongoing activity.

Efforts would be made to propagate the NRDMS methodology through specific training modules in the administrative institutions like the Lal Bahadur Shastri Academy of Administrative Training in Massoori, Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi and other such institutions.

(vii) New Initiatives
(A) Pilot District level Programme on “National Geo-Spatial Data Infrastructure (NGDI)” DST has recently launched an initiative to establish a National Geo-Spatial Data Infrastructure. Primary aim of the initiative is to standardize the data sets,     make the standard sets available on a network, and set up a set of mechanisms     and policies for facilitating authentication and availability of various types of spatial data sets collected in the country for use in various developmental  purposes. Various departments and survey agencies like DST,SOI, NATMO, DOS,    GSI, ICAR, CGWB are participating in this endeavour. Creation of the NGDI will   require launching of various R & D initiatives defining data / metadata standards, developing data transfer standards, building up data browsing tools / protocols, setting up of data clearing houses for data validation /authentication. NGDI with its    data / metadata standards will facilitate creation and development of resource     databases for the district level GIS centers and modeling studies under the NRDMS Programme. During the X plan, it is therefore proposed to launch a sub-programme on NGDI to help evolve the standard data sets needed for developing district level databases and modeling exercises vis-à-vis the NGDI standards. A mechanism will be set up for validating and authenticating the data sets generated under NRDMS programme through primary surveys for research and modeling purposes. 

(B) Setting up of Centre for Geographic Information and Analysis 
The concluding UNDP-assisted project “GIS-based Technologies for Local Level Development Planning” has helped define a set of research areas and activities relevant to the country and need to be pursued further with a definite focus of research in the area of development and application of spatial data management technologies. It is thus, proposed to set up a Centre for Geographic Information and Analysis with the involvement of several premier institutions like IIT Bombay, CEERI, Pilani; University of Poona, Pune; IIT, Delhi and several other R & D agencies. Basic infrastructure like computers, GPS receivers, software packages and expertise have been created at these institutions and agencies during the past few years with the assistance from UNDP. IIT, Bombay has the potential to grow as a National Centre with most of these equipment and the expertise required in the core technology development available with the Institute. The primary objective of the Centre will be to provide core R & D support to the operational agencies utilizing GIS technology, development and upgradation of technology, training and technology transfer. The following areas of research relevant to GIS technology is proposed to be promoted:
 
(i) Spatial Data Modeling
(ii) Object-oriented GIS
(iii) 3D / 4D GIS
(iv) Interoperable / Open GIS
(v) Internet GIS
(vi) Integration of high resolution remote sensing data with GIS
(vii) Spatial querying
(viii) Spatial statistics / error propagation
(C) Coastal Zone Management and Conservation 
Marine and coastal areas are now a priority in national and regional development planning, but require stronger institutional capacity, increased management skills and popular support to be successful. In order to address India's vast need for improved coastal resources management it was felt necessary to initiate a programme on Coastal Resource Management and Conservation (CRMC) under the NRDMS scheme of Dept. of Science and Technology. The challenge is to develop coastal resources management techniques that allow development, but conserve the rich ecological resource base. The overall objective of the programme is to make an assessment of the resource base of coastal segments for fulfillment of social and economic development and also to devise ways to maintain the health and productivity of the system, forecast the type and extent of future conflicts in resource use within the context of changing social, economical and political circumstances.

(D)Information Technology for Sustainable Agricultural Production System in Punjab 
Under the UNDP- GOI Technology Management Programme Support (TMPS) with in the Country Co-operation Framework 1997 - 2002 this sub-programme is being operated with in an approved cost of 1.25 Million US $ (Approx Rs. 5.75 Crores). The sub-programme will be executed under the aegis of NRDMS division with TIFAC as the implementing agency.

The programme aims to provide integrated information at three hierarchical levels viz. State (1:2,50,000), District (5 districts at 1:50,000) and Panchayat (on cadastral scale). Specifically, the project would establish:

(a) Spatial data bases on natural resources and collatoral socio and agro economic parameters based on the concepts of GIS.
(b) Development and demonstration of decision support tools in the sectors of water management, crop weather modelling, pest and disease models, energy budgetting, landuse for optimum cropping pattern with in-built economic dimensions.
(c) Multimedia training and demostration kits for dissemination of data/information to target groups.



Budgetary requirements for implementing the R&D activities are projected below:


Sl. No

R|&D Activity

Budgetary Requirement |( In |Rs. Crores)

1.

Software Development

5.00

2. Land and Water System

10.00

3. Landslide Studies

5.00

4. Himalayan Ecology & Biogeo Database 

2.00

5. Microwave Remote Sensing  & SAR Interferometry

3.00

6. Technology Transfer & Human Resource Development 

2.00

7. Pilot District Programme on “National Geo-Spatial Data Infrastructure”

5.00

8. Setting up of Indian Centre for Geographic Information and Analysis

3.00

9. Coastal Zone Management & Conservation

2.00

  Total

37.00


Total Budgetary Requirement of NRDMS during the 10th Plan Period for implementing the proposed activities are as follows: 

(1) Establishment of NRDMS District Centres   -Rs. 10.00 Crores 
(2) State Coverage of NRDMS in Karnataka   -Rs. 3.00 Crores 
(3) Promote R&D initiatives                          -Rs. 37.00 Crores 
                   TOTAL                                      Rs. 50.00 Crores