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4.1 Spatial Data Technologies (SDT)

I. Ontology - Concerned with defining concepts, relationships, and operations pertinent to geo-spatial domain

  1. Standards (metadata, vocabulary, functionality, interoperability)
  2. Representations (physical, conceptual, and user level)
  3. Data Sharing
  4. Space-scale relationship
  5. Data quality & Uncertainty
II. System Issues - for efficient representation of spatial data analysis and
management techniques
  1. Role of advanced technologies :
    • Distributed & high performance computing
    • Data processing using high performance software and hardware
    • Dissemination of data to remote clients
    • Data clearinghouse development
    • Security
  2. User interface:
    • Touch screen
    • Web based
    • Indian language support
    • Voice based interaction
  3. Query optimization / storage structures
  4. Open / public domain implementation of GIS
  5. Object-oriented database design and management

III. Functionality - to enhance the capability of SDT

  1. Spatial data mining and knowledge discovery
    • Data Warehousing
  2. Object oriented image analysis
  3. Content based image retrieval
  4. Visualization
  5. Spatial analysis
    • Spatial models to represent real world interaction
    • Spatial statistics
    • Network analysis
    • Time series analysis
    • Simulation
    • Predictive spatial interactive models
    • O-R models
IV Applications - innovative solutions to location specific problems using SDT

  1. Decision support systems in different sectors.
  2. Application specific models - development of new models, adaptation of existing models, development of model base management systems
V. Policies and socio-legal issues
    1. IPR issue
    2. Information policies at Government level
    3. Economics of data
    4. Access to Government data
    5. Role and benefits for local users
    6. Security and ownership
    7. Assessment of impact of SDT on society
VI. Capacity building
  1. Training manpower, deployment of technologies developed, distance education, development of educational content for different levels of users

4.2 Advanced Technology Application in High Resolution Spatial Data Gathering

4.2.1 Remote Sensing Technologies
  1. Hyperspectral Imaging -
    • Development of appropriate indices, band combinations etc. for information extraction
    • Employment of hyperspectral data in applications relating to Agriculture,Landuse classification, Mineral targeting, Forestry, Ecology and other related areas.
  2. Microwave Remote Sensing including SAR Interferometry
    • Refinement of soil moisture estimation technique using Microwave Remote Sensing methodsDevelopment and improvement of microwave probes / sensors for ground measurements of soil moisture
    • Development of indigenous SAR Interferometric data processing tools
    • Improve techniques of high resolution topographic information generation by employing SAR Interferometry
    • Application of SAR Interferometry in estimation of waterflow from glacial melt, land subsidence, landslides and in watershed management.
    • Create state of the art facilities spread over research and academic institutions in the country to provide opportunities to the scientists to understand and explore the capabilities of SAR Interferometry

  3. Airborne Laser Terrain Mapping
    • Explore the technical & economics of ALTM technology in gathering height information in different physiographic setups through pilot scale projects.
    • Organise awareness workshops to disseminate the research findings
  4. High Resolution Satellite images.
    • Promote R&D in application of high-resolution satellite images in construction and updating of spatial information for block and village level planning.
    • Support training programmes and workshops in image interpretation and information extraction
  5. Use of thermal remote sensing
    • Support application studies in the use of thermal images in resource estimation

4.2.2 Adaptation of new technologies

  1. Application of Global Positioning System
    • Development of easy interfaces with GPS for deployment in the field for data collection using the local level manpower.
    • Organize Training programmes on the concepts and application of GPS in spatial data gathering.
    • Support R&D studies in the application of GPS technology in spatial planning
  2. Use of Ground Penetration Radar
    • Application in specific studies relating to agriculture, town
      planning etc. to be supported.

4.3 Land & Water Management at local level

4.3.1 Data infrastructure Development
  1. Research on standardization of data collection, and data density.
  2. R & D in object-oriented database design and management (SDT)
  3. Building of knowledge bases in relation to local preferences
  4. Risk assessment relating to extreme events.
  5. Assessing data needs at the watershed level for different agro-climatic regions to provide information for watershed management and planning.
  6. Standard national codification of natural resources (like watersheds up to micro and mini level, flora , fauna etc.).
4.3.2 Technology development
  1. Development and improvement of models for local area planning including urban area for which one can integrate the hydrological, ecological, economic, social, institutional and legal aspects of land & water issues for developing multi-objective DSS and SDSSs for different ecosystems.
  2. Environmental Impact Assessment.
  3. Performance Evaluation
  4. Improved water management practices - Salinity ingress prevention, pollution abetment, recycling and reuse of water, geo-thermal water, irrigation methods, wetland management, vector harvesting groundwater recharge etc.
  5. Improved land management practices including land related problem studies.
  6. Assessment of water quality.
  7. Ecological modeling - Dynamics of Biodiversity
  8. Coastal zone management technologies
4.3.3 Technology transfer
Technology transfer & technological capacity building at local level through:
  1. Training in Land & water management technologies relevant for local area/watershed planning.
  2. Development of web-based tools and technologies for better land and water management.
  3. Education curricula on locally relevant sustainable water management.
  4. Training at village, in water resources identification, quality assessment and control of pollution and adoption of water harvesting techniques.

4.4 Technology Transfer and Capacity Building

4.4.1 Technology Transfer Infrastructure
  1. Setting up of multi-tier training infrastructure in NRDMS echnologies at national, regional/ state, and local levels to cater to the raining needs of de-centralised planning.
  2. Setting up of pilot NRDMS center at least in one district of uncovered states.
  3. Setting up of model information hubs at selected block / Village Panchayats or micro-watersheds in various NRDMS districts in already-covered states by linking them up to the district NRDMS centers to facilitate easy access to resource information.
  4. Setting up of similar networks in each of the uncovered states for subsequent expansion and maintenance by the State Governments, District Administration, Local Communities, and NGOs.
  5. Coverage of urban areas to facilitate capacity building of nagarpalikas in relevant themes by setting up similar networks in wards
4.4.2 Training
  1. Development of different training kits, modules, e-tutors for different target groups in
    • spatial database development, up-gradation & maintenance
    • map making, map use;
    • information retrieval relevant to local level planning
  2. Customization of GIS tools for different target groups and dissemination of the tools with packaged area-specific data sets for their immediate use.
  3. Training of people at community level in map reading & large-scale map preparation.
  4. Preparation of GIS-based digital atlases for schools/colleges for the training of students on spatial data retrieval using GIS techniques on pilot basis.
4.4.3 Technology transfer & Capacity Building
  1. Dissemination of spatial data sets, products and technologies (GRAM++ and GRAM++ based technologies) to local self-governance institutions, NGOs, schools, colleges, Line Departments etc.
  2. Popularisation of customized GIS tools to cater to the specific needs of development schemes/programmes in operation at the districts or below
  3. Building up of technical and institutional capacities of local institutions of self-governance, government officials, NGOs and individuals as well as local technical institutions for absorption of NRDMS technologies and tools at different levels.
For More Details, Please See the NRDMS Vision Document