Home About Us NRDMS Centers Projects Submitted NRDMS 10th Plan
Related Sites
Home > About NRDMS > Programs > Research & Development > Watershed Management 
These are the following projects, which are sponsored by NRDMS:

* Centre for Water Resource Development and Management, Kerala 2003 
* Centre for Water Resource Development and Management, Kerala 2002 
* Division of Environment Science, IARI, Jharkhand 

Hydrology of Small Watersheds 

With the adoption of 73rd and 74th amendments, the emphasis of Indian Planning is currently on Local Level Development Planning. In this context assessment, management and utilisation of natural resources especially land and water at local level assume the prime importance. For this purpose, planning, development and implementation of rural development programmes at small watershed level has been gaining momentum. 

The International Committee on Runoff defines a small watershed on the basis of the criterion that, with regard to a small watershed, the effect of overland flow rather than the effect of channel flow is a dominating factor affecting the peak runoff. Consequently, a small watershed is very sensitive to high intensity rainfall of short duration and to the changes in land use pattern. On larger watersheds, the effect of channel flow or the basin storage effect becomes very pronounced so that such sensitivities are greatly suppressed (Chow, 1964). 

Planning and development of small watersheds calls for rigorous understanding about the occurrence and movement of water in the surface and sub-surface systems along with soil and nutrient losses in a small watershed. Realising the importance of the problem and gaps in understanding small watershed hydrology in Indian catchments due to paucity of data, the coordinated program on "Hydrology of small watershed" has been launched by Department of Science and Technology, Government of India.
The main objectives of the program are:  

1. To generate data on hydro-meteorological, soil, nutrients and process related ----- parameters at small watershed level in different agro-ecological zones of the country through instrumentation. 
2. To carry out modeling studies on watershed hydrology. 
3. To develop SDSS for land and water management at small watershed scale. 
4. To assess the impact of on-site and off-site management structures for soil and water conservation. Under the program a pair of treated and untreated small watersheds ( about 10 sq. km. ) have been selected in the following regions 
(1) Dudhi and Bewas watersheds of Tawa basin in Raisen district of Madhya Pradesh. 
(2) Jojri and Jhanwar watersheds of Loni basin in Jodhpur district of Rajasthan . 
(3) Chandrabhaga Garh and Danda watersheds in Garhwal district of Uttar Pradesh. 
(4) Paykkara watershed in Attapady region of Palghat district of Kerala and Rampatna watershed in Kolar district of Karnataka. 
(5) Two microwatersheds in the Loktak lake basin of Manipur. 
Criteria for selecting these watersheds are as follows: 
>Small watersheds as defined by the Department of Agriculture, Govt. of India varying in size from 00-5000. 
>It should be accessible and must have sites for water resources development. 
>The watershed should have some agricultural activities in it. 
>Those contiguous to another watershed which has already been developed under some governmental programme. 
>The watershed should represent the pre-dominant landuse system of the agro-ecological region. 
DST assistance in the projects has come mainly in the form of supplying hydro-meteorological instruments , which have been standardised for such small watershed study (list attached). 

Outputs expected out of these programme are: 

(1) Integrated database for water sector at small watershed level for different 
Agro-climatic regions. 
(2) Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS) for watershed management . 
(3) Scientific indices for impact assessment of watershed management 
(4) User manual for using the database and SDSSs.